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As the gavocciolo had been and still was an infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves.which could have been caused by flea-bites, were identified as another potential sign of the plague.
The Black Death is thought to have originated in the dry plains of Central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1343.
Both male and female fleas feed on blood and can transmit the infection.
Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.
As it spread from China with the Mongols to a Chinese trading post in Crimea, called Kaffa, used by the Republic of Genoa.
From there the disease, infected rodents infecting new rodents, entered the region from southern Russia also.
From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships, spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe.
The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe's total population.The foregut (proventriculus) of this flea is blocked by a Y.pestis biofilm; when the flea attempts to feed on an uninfected host Y.In China, the 13th-century Mongol conquest caused a decline in farming and trading.However, economic recovery had been observed at the beginning of the 14th century.Modern researchers do not think that the plague ever became endemic in Europe or its rat population.