Dating traditions in spain
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After quick adoption in ninth-century Baghdad, it came slowly to be transmitted to Christian Europe around the thirteenth century through Jewish scholars working in Islamic Spain.This long and tortuous path is illustrated by the works of such distinguished scholars as the Persian mathematician al-Khwarizmi (783850), who worked in the House of Wisdom at Baghdad and from whose name the word algorithm is derived, and Fibonacci of Pisa (11701250), famous for the Fibonacci sequence still familiar today.
At first encounter, it appeared marvelous to West Asians, and “satanic” to Christian clerics in the Europe of the Middle Ages.What is perhaps not so widely known is that the acceptance of the system in Europe followed centuries of bitter dispute between the abacists and the algorists.The abacists computed with beads mounted on strings or wires; the algorists computed with numbers and symbols on a sand-board (figures were written on a thin layer of sand or dust spread on a board, which was then smoothed out once the calculations were completed so as to be ready for the next).The influence of Aryabhata on Indian mathematics almost rivals that of Euclid in the West; Kodanda-rama wrote a commentary on the Aryabhatiya as late as 1850.Particularly well known among the many astronomer-mathematicians who followed Aryabhata was Brahmagupta (b.It is possible that the cycles of acceptance and rejection of these philosophies reflect the social and political circumstances in which Indian civilization has found itself.
Among those who followed Aryabhata and Brahmagupta we can mention here only a few.The eventual victory of the algorists replaced physical manipulation of beads by operations with symbols, and led in due course to the nearly universal acceptance of the numerals in use today.These ‘international’ numerals are very close in shape to the ones in Sanskrit.Aryabhata’s work, unlike that of many who followed him, had some sound physical reasoning as well.For example, he noted how motion was relative, suggested that the earth was round and rotated on its axis, and had the correct physical explanation for eclipses.One can see a correspondence between modern notation and the ancient one used in such texts as the Bakhshali manuscript.