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Such is the case, not only with locating the biblical patriarchs, but also in discovering the exodus, the conquest, or Israelite kingdom under the rule of David and Solomon in the archaeological record. or any other point fixed and known to the Old Testament authors, so the matter is more complicated than it might ordinarily seem.” Most critical scholars and archaeologists today date the writing of the book of Exodus from around the time of the Babylonian exile (circa 586 B.
The dating of Egypt’s pharaohs comes primarily (although not exclusively) from the 3 century B. Egyptian priest & historian Manetho who ordered the reigns of the pharaohs into thirty dynasties or families, in his work Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). The ancient Egyptians themselves kept record of time according to an astronomical cycle called the Sothic cycle.C.; and a knowledge of the Egyptian 18 Dynasty, it is possible to ascertain the probable identity of the pharaoh in the book of Exodus.Interestingly, there are about three pharaohs whose lives parallel and interact with the OT Exodus narrative: (1) the pharaoh who issued the decree to kill the firstborns; (2) the pharaoh of the oppression of Israel and (3) the pharaoh of the actual exodus event itself.Throughout the Exodus narrative, the pharaoh either implies or asks “Who is the Lord that I should obey his voice to let Israel go?I do not know the Lord, nor will I let Israel go” (Ex. The irony, perhaps intentional, is that we don’t know pharaoh’s name, but we do know the Lord’s name (Yahweh – “I AM”).One of the reasons why many scholars today argue for a revised chronology of ancient Egypt is the question of whether or not the Sothic cycle is a reliable method for dating. To make a very long and complex story short, I’ll state here that I hold to the revised chronology which makes minor adjustments on dates and therefore affects the identity of the pharaoh. There are, however, many problems with identifying Rameses II as the pharaoh of the exodus, one of which is that he was one of the longest reigning kings in ancient Egypt.
According to the standard chronology, most critical scholars believe that Rameses II (ca. As Merrill points out, “If Rameses’ death had brought Moses back to Egypt, the exodus would have taken place after 1236, a date too late to satisfy anybody.” But perhaps, more importantly, there is no archaeological or inscriptional evidence in Egypt or ancient Canaan which fit the biblical descriptions. With a little detective work; a starting point of around 1446 B.Obviously, there is no reckoning of time in the Old Testament with reference to B. Elsewhere Merrill explains: “According to 1 Kings 6:1, the exodus occurred 480 years prior to the laying of the foundations of Solomon’s temple. C., so the exodus according to normal hermeneutics and serious appraisal of the biblical chronological data, took place in 1446 [B. This might seem like a simple question, but it is a bit more complex than one might imagine. I find it rather interesting that the Exodus account in the Old Testament doesn’t mention the name of the pharaoh.C.].” IF this is the correct date of the exodus then, in theory, we should be able to locate archaeological remains of that event in ancient Egypt. Just because we might have the right date doesn’t mean that Egyptian evidence will be evident. Before we look at some of those questions, let’s begin with what is probable: the identity of the pharaoh of the Exodus. Since Moses was the author, he certainly could have named him. In short, I believe that pharaoh’s name is not mentioned on purpose.When Thutmose II died prematurely, Hatshepsut assumed the role of pharaoh along with and her younger (male) nephew (& stepson) Thutmose III.As William Murnane observes, “Although Hatshepsut did not dethrone her nephew, she asserted a claim to royal power equal to his and, as senior coregent, took precedence over him in contemporary monuments.” During her co-regency with the younger Thutmose III, Egypt enjoyed a time of prosperity and great building.Because of space, we’ll look at the first and last one.