Dating the reign of solomon
Dating the reign of solomon - dating someone who smokes marijuana
Hence, any apparent conflict between I Samuel 13:1 and Acts is due to mistranslations and not due to the actual text.
"And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years." Yet, I Samuel 13:1 in the NASB says, "Saul was forty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty two years over Israel." The NIV renders it, "Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty-two years." And the NKJV says, "Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel." The NKJV is the most literal of translations.
There is no reason to assume I Samuel 13:1 is the standard summary of a king's reign, since it is given in middle of Saul's reign and not at the beginning or end.
Interestingly, while not inspired, Josephus, an ancient Jewish historian, also states that Saul reigned 40 years. Using another point in time, "It happened in the fifth year of King Rehoboam that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem" (I Kings ). Scholars are fairly certain that Shishak's campaign took place in 924 B. Using this as a base date and knowing that Solomon reigned 40 years (II Chronicles ), we come to 969 B.
This point in time corresponds to the fourth year of Solomon's reign.
Solomon's father, David, reigned 40 years over Israel (I Kings ).
While the information given in the Bible has been repeatedly proven accurate, dates have been a particular challenge because earlier cultures did not use fixed calendars as we do.
Instead, time was measured based as elapsed from certain major events or significant person.
It is not bad when you are off by a year for a single king, but when you have ten kings in a row, you can be off by up to ten years before or after depending on when the change in kingships occurred.
Every once in a while, a significant event is measured, not by the immediate event, but by a more distant event.
Based on some Septuagint translations, the NIV assume the first number was meant to be 30 and based on Paul's assertion that Saul reigned forty years, they assume the second number is 42 (with Paul rounding the date in Acts).
Personally, I find these assumptions to be too much.
We don't know how many years that Solomon reigned while his father David lived, nor do we know if the years given for David and Solomon's reigns include or exclude this overlap.