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Furthermore, the discovery of a surprising number of submarine volcanoes highlights the underestimation of global volcanism and provides a loose basis for an estimate that may partly explain ocean acidification and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels observed last century, as well as shedding much needed light on intensified polar spring melts.
Christmas Ridge is formed in a concentration of Pacific Seamounts.
Extraordinary numbers of seamounts are volcanically active (Hillier & Watts, 2007).
Moreover, active fracture zones also offer a preferred escape route for magmatic CO also finds its way into aquifers (eg.
To make matters worse, the reported output of any individual volcano is itself an estimate based on limited rather than complete measurement.
One may reasonably assume that in each case, such estimates are based on a representative and statistically significant quantity of empirical measurements.
The same potential problem exists with the observatory at Alert in Northern Canada, because it is located inside the circumpolar wind zone along with the Arctic Rift and thousands of venting seamounts along key parts of the Northwest Passage.
That leaves us with Point Barrow, arguably the only CO measurements are unlikely to be influenced by magmatic gas plumes.Furthermore, this liquid aesthenosphere, which continues to create new crust at rifting zones such as the mid oceanic ridges, melts down subducting crust as the residue of this crust is drawn deeper into the mantle.While volatiles trapped in the remaining crustal residue are ultimately assimilated into the mantle, lighter volatiles from the crustal melt are fractionated and float up towards the surface to feed plate margin volcanoes.A brief survey of the literature concerning volcanogenic carbon dioxide emission finds that estimates of subaerial emission totals fail to account for the diversity of volcanic emissions and are unprepared for individual outliers that dominate known volcanic emissions.Deepening the apparent mystery of total volcanogenic CO emission and fossil fuel consumption that are, to date, unquantified.Then we read statements, such as this one courtesy of the USGS (2010): Scientists have calculated that volcanoes emit between about 130-230 million tonnes (145-255 million tons) of CO2 into the atmosphere every year (Gerlach, 1991).