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An alternative used in the early days of OHC engines was to drive the camshaft(s) via a vertical shaft with bevel gears at each end.This system was, for example, used on the pre-World War I Peugeot and Mercedes Grand Prix cars.
The amount of change is very little (usually Duration specifications can often be misleading because manufacturers may select any lift point from which to advertise a camshaft's duration and sometimes will manipulate these numbers.
The farther the valve rises from its seat the more airflow can be provided, which is generally more beneficial. Firstly, lift is limited by the increased proximity of the valve head to the piston crown and secondly, greater effort is required to move the valve springs to a higher state of compression.
Increased lift can also be limited by lobe clearance in the cylinder head casting.
The cam lobes force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some intermediate mechanism, as they rotate.
Camshafts can be made out of several types of material.
For this reason, the camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly, via a gear mechanism, or indirectly via a belt or chain called a timing belt or timing chain.
Direct drive using gears is unusual because of the cost.With some early fuel injection systems, cams on the camshaft would operate the fuel injectors.Honda redesigned the VF750 motorcycle from chain drive to the gear drive VFR750 due to insurmountable problems with the VF750 Hi-Vo inverted chain drive.The relationship between the rotation of the camshaft and the rotation of the crankshaft is of critical importance.Since the valves control the flow of the air/fuel mixture intake and exhaust gases, they must be opened and closed at the appropriate time during the stroke of the piston.A secondary effect of increased duration can be increased overlap, which is the number of crankshaft degrees during which both intake and exhaust valves are off their seats.