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It will be shown that Jupiter’s spinning inside the orbit of charged lo creates Jupiter’s magnetic field, and not vice versa.(19) The widely publicized tidal heating of lo to account for its great internal heat and volcanism has been questioned.(20) The tidal theory predicts the greatest heat to be at the north and south poles of lo,(21) but almost all volcanic activity is observed within 30degrees of its equator. Once again they erroneously assume that the magnetic fields simply exist. As the comet achieves a circular orbit, it no longer will cross the Surfaces of equipotential and will remain essentially at a single potential. Sherrerd, “The Electromagnetic Circularization of Planetary Orbits”, KRONOS IV:4 (1979), pp. Past the orbit of Pluto, known from Pioneer II data. It is now apparent that the observation of the higher proton current in the solar wind should have been interpreted property a long time ago; but, as with many other cases of interpretation of data, scientists make data fit their theories and not vice versa. Two results of the new galaxy concept (2) are that the stellar core is not one of collapsed hydrogen, but is a solid planetary type core since all the celestial bodies are initially formed in the same way, and that the heavy isotopes – detected spectroscopically after a nova – come from this core; they are not generated in the explosion as previously thought.As with all “accepted” theories, it has been favored because it supports the a priori assumption that everything in the solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago. and that thew in turn cause the observed electric effects (i.e., the alteration Of Charged particle counts new Saturn’s small moons, the electrical discharge that occurs in Saturn’s atmosphere every time Dione passes overhead, the current sheet flowing constantly between Dione and Saturn – announced in October, 1982, and similar to the lo-Jupiter current sheet – the giga-amp electrical discharges that map regularly among Saturn’s rings, the correlation between electrical discharges and the “rotating spokes”, the non-Keplerian orbits of certain ring particles and small moons, and the twisted F-ring). This is a simplistic explanation but applies well in the innersolar system where the equipotential surfaces are nearly spherical (past Jupiter, the Sun’s magnetic tail will distort these surfaces). 55-58; Ragnar Forshufvud, “On the Circularization of the Orbit of Venus”, KRONOS VII:2 (1982), pp. It has been known for a long time that the velocities of protons in the solar wind are much greater than those of electrons; however, scientists have maintained equal currents of electrons and protons because of the a priori assumption that space is electrically neutral. From analysis of a solid core exploding into random assortment of pieces, a second result shows that there will be great numbers of small fragments, with fewer fragments of increasingly larger size.
This has led to the popularized statement that there is universal acceptance of these theories. In September, 1980, this was pointed out to the staff of ICARUS, which is edited at Cornell Uhiversity. Part I further extended concepts introduced in an earlier paper (1) that Saturn and its ring system (and Jupiter to a lesser extent) exhibit star-like properties including electrical discharges between its rings and in its atmosphere.
On the contrary, the coma is well defined up to an edge and does not exist appreciably beyond this. This would account for the higher velocities of protons observed in the solar wind. It should be expected that the Jupiter-Galileo orbiter (presently scheduled for the spring of 1986) will see comet nuclei (e.g., small asteroidal bodies) as they enter Jupiter’s radiation belts and detect the electromagnetic effects that must accompany such an encounter.
Observed anti-tails (sunward fan-shaped tails) have been explained as due to the rotating ice ball interacting with the solar wind.(26) Comet wandering is claimed to be due to the ejection of jets from the ice ball.(27,28) The curved Type II tails as observed in Donati’s comet and comet West follow the comet in its orbit. At any rate, what holds the corona in place remains an unsolvedmystery. The primary source is the nebular ion cloud (explained in Part I, KRONOS IX:1) which contains the light elements up to approximately sulfur, as this is what is observed in comet tails of extreme length.
After the Voyager I Saturn encounter, many began to realize the inability of the nebular theory to explain the data, especially the electrical phenomena and large energy output of Saturn as compared to Jupiter. Other objections which cannot be ignored are the results of all four Pioneer-Venus probes (11) which detected “more energy being radiated up from the lower atmosphere than enters as sunlight”, the faint glow at the surface and atmospheric lightning, not to mention the high concentration of argon-36,(12) among others. 787) on the charging of the comet nucleus, is quite different from the present paper. Their reply was that they did not know of, or believe in, such an effect on satellites. The star-fire properties are necessarily a result of localized fusion reactions in the gas planets’ atmospheres which are ignited by energetic lightning bolts (which have been detected by Voyagers I and II).
The unexpected elevated temperature in Titan’s clouds (13) has been explained as due to a temperature inversion, suggesting that the heat is generated by a greenhouse effect. That paper assumes the ice ball comet model and claims charging to be a result of the solar wind and UV light impinging on the ice ball, It does not anticipate effects observable from Earth and does not allow the existence of the nebular ion cloud which is proposed in this paper. (They were not familiar with the De Forst paper or the fact that at least some members of the JPL imaging team obw”ed charged particle measurements to be affected by an unidentified electric potential at the surface of the space craft studying Saturn as referenced by Filius, et al.) In 1982, during the first space walk by space shuttle astronauts. The analogy was made between the Saturn-ring and Sun-zodiacal disc systems.
But, Titan receives only about 1/40,000th the sunlight that reaches Venus, so few will believe in a greenhouse effect at this distance from the Sun. With the recent determination of the low mass of Pluto (Pluto has non-trivial amounts of gaseous methane in its atmosphere yet is only 1/400th the mass of Earth),(15) one can only ask how it has maintained this atmosphere for 4.5 billion years and how it maintains the elevated temperature necessary to have a gaseous atmosphere (as with Titan)? In brief, there is no apparent common ground between the two papers. Observations were made and photos were taken of an aura-like glow at the surface of the shuttle. Part II further develops the new comet capture theory for the origin of the solar system (OSS) and proposes mechanisms for observed phenomena which must be accounted for in any self consistent theory.
(16) The current sheet of five million amps that flows constantly from lo to Jupiter was the first electrical discharge phenomenon recorded by Voyager in interplanetary space. It is curious to note, however, that the Astrophysical Journal published that paper but refused even to comment on the present paper which takes exception to the ice ball comet model. One of the prominent astronomical observations of 1982 related quasars to normal galaxy evolution, in which young stars were forming in a cloud at the visible surface of certain quasars (ref. NASA space scientists were asked to explain this and conjectured that it may be related to oxygen ions impinging on the surface (implying a net charge on the shuttle, although charging was never specifically mentioned). Similar to the discharge of a backyard electric bug killer which discharges when a bug enters the area between anode and cathode. The capacitor that forms with the Sun in its center and nebular ion cloud surrounding it (past the orbit of Pluto) will haw surfaces of electrical equipotential between cathode and mode. These include the origin of comet nuclei and the reason for the observed “families” of comets arriving from many specific directions in space, comet wandering, sunward spikes, sunward fan tails, occasional separation of the tail from the nucleus, comet splitting, the cause of Type I, II, and III tails, the spiraling of tail material, the stratification in some tails, multiple tails, the shrinking of the coma as the comet approaches the Sun, and the maintenance of meteoroid streams.The article is a condensed version of a 450 page manuscript (Origin of the Planets, Comet Capture Processes in the Formation of Solar Systems, also by the author) which further develops each aspect of the new comet theory.Although it was never intended, the theory explains Since 1982, with the analysis of data from the Pioneer II/Voyager I/Voyager II missions to the outer planets and the Pioneer Venus/ Russian Venera probes, the trend even among established astrophysicists has markedly turned towards catastrophism based on celestial events (these have been mainly variations on the “colliding asteroid” theory). 17-39) presented critiques of the ice ball comet model (IBCM) and nebular collapse theory of the origin of the solar system (OSS) and argued that these “accepted” theories fall short of explaining numerous observed phenomena.Also, it is particularly hard to imagine a sungrazing ice ball passing through the 1 million degree solar corona, spending a number of hours grazing the solar atmosphere (not to mention passing through the solar Roche limit on a highly eccentric orbit), and passing to the outside again relatively unaffected. This pure electron cloud with a temperature of millions of degrees is certainly not held in place by gravity and there is no apparent containment mechanism from without. Even within the asteroid belt, studies have shown that the number of asteroids increases as a geometric progression with decreasing size.(6) For this reason, the few close encounters of comets with planets that have been observed in the past 300 years show only comets with small masses.If the icy volatiles were ejected by solar radiation bombardment, then the statistics of following such a molecule, given the mean free path as a constant, would show the comet coma luminosity to fade exponentially as the distance from the nucleus. The corona may act as a filter for the solar wind, accelerating protons while retarding electrons. This is a very short time astronomically and cannot be extrapolated to the age of the solar system or to all comets as has been done by astronomers.Internal heating will be discussed in detail and it will be shown that tidal heating has been overestimated. To date, NASA has not offered any viable explanations for these observations, although some were discovered over two years ago. Since current = charge x wlocity / l, there is an excess current of protons in the solar wind, leaving the Sun with a net negative charge. The nova will spray neighboring twin star systems with these fragments which may then be captured to begin new lives as comet nuclei.(5)Once again, it is a game of numbers.