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Expressing validation rules using patterns is often easier than defining the same rule using a content model.
Validation using tree patterns is a two-step process: Both the candidate object selection, and the assertions can be defined in terms of XPath expressions.
A trivial XML vocabulary is introduced for the purposes of generating examples.
The later sections in this paper provides an overview of the open source XSLT framework used to implement the Schematron language.
Abstract Schematron [Schematron] is a structural based validation language, defined by Rick Jelliffe, as an alternative to existing grammar based approaches.
Tree patterns, defined as XPath expressions, are used to make assertions, and provide user-centred reports about XML documents.
More formally, the nodes and arcs within a graph of data can be traversed to both identify nodes, and then make assertions about the relationships of those nodes to others within the same graph.
Assertions are therefore the mechanism for placing constraints on the relationships between nodes in a graph (elements and attributes in an XML document).The majority of these have taken the basic premise of recasting DTD functionality in XML syntax with the addition, in some cases, of other features such as data typing, inheritance, etc [XMLSchema].The use of XML syntax provides additional flexibility through leveraging existing tools for markup manipulation, while the 'value added' features satisfy the requirements of developers looking for closer integration with databases and object-oriented languages.As the XPath specification [XPath] shows, there are many possible kinds of relationship, known as 'axes'.While XML does include an ID/IDREF mechanism which allows for cross-referencing between elements, and hence another form of relationships, it only weakly binds those elements.There is no enforcement that an IDREF must point to an ID on a particular element type, simply that is must point to an existing ID, and further that all IDs must be unique.